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净空财富的脏乱差秘密,词汇解析

8 4月 , 2019  

原标题:【国际】泰国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外资费

本期原著选自The Economist 2017-02-2伍的文章Clean energy’s dirty
secret,释义来自加州洛杉矶分校高阶柒版、有道词典等财富。即使你也在读书The
Economist,欢迎订阅笔者的文集The
Economist,一起念书交换。

翻译按:任何二个行业的革命都会碰到既有势力的掣肘。读完本文,你将掌握到洁净财富为啥不能够立时取代旧财富的五个原因,以及也许的化解方案——政党的参加和调节。
正文译自《军事学人》一月二十六日刊。

By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

泰国决策者起草的新法律供给向使用区块链技术的电力生产商收取额外开销。

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables【1】 revolution is wrecking【2】 the
world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

威尼斯人开户 1

Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in
Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

据《日经信息欧洲评价》电视发表,泰王国发电局(EGAT)须要支付这笔开销作为区块链技术带来的潜在影响的补贴。

【一】renewables 可再生财富

法学人封面

方今,类似于图中的海南武学院同的大花头熊形状的太阳能发电类型早就很宽泛了。

ERC成员Viraphol Jirapraditkul表示:

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Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets.
Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines
    were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s
    electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
    peripheral to
    the energy system just over a decade ago, they are
    now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling
    costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels. BP, an oil
    firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
    energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched
    to think
    that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and
    cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in
a particular activity, idea, or situation
威尼斯人开户 ,e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池微风涡轮机表达大概150年后,他们依然只产生世界七%的电力。不过,壹些值得注意的作业正在发生。十几年前还处在财富系统的外围,它们以后的增长速度超过别的别的财富,它们下降的资金使其和化石燃料一样有竞争力
BP,一家原油公司,估计可再生能源将占以往20年天下财富供应增进的2/四。世界正在进入八个干干净净,Infiniti和减价电力的一代不再是可疑的。也是光阴难题。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to
    there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades,
    to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the
    pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally
    investors like putting their money into electricity because it
    offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
    more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
    source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
    future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
    need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
    market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

净空财富的脏乱差秘密,词汇解析。hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it
for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a
success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

二)但是,有1个20万亿英镑的小问题。从现行反革命到以往亟需在现在几10年大批量的投资,以代替旧的喷出混合雾的发发电站和提拔给顾客带来电的电缆塔和电线。经常投资者喜欢把钱投入电力,因为它提供保障的回报。可是,深翠绿财富有多个邋遢的心腹。它布署得越来越多,它就会让来自别的来源的电力价格下挫越多。那使得通向无碳的以后的联网难以决定,在那时期,如若要让灯继续发光的话,许多致电技术,无论清洁依旧污染,须要保持毛利。除非市镇是稳定的,不然对行业的补贴只会增加。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a
    reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe
    and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are
    cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It
    is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make
    better use of it.

An inconvenient
truth
是1部关于天气变化和天下变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽视的本来面目》——译者注
put the brakes on sth: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut
back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

三)政策制定者已经把那些尴尬的本质看作停止可再生财富的1个缘由。在澳大圣Pedro苏拉联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)和中华的有些地域,可再生能源的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。可是,消除方案不是更加少的风和太阳能。而是重新思量世界哪些为清新财富定价,以便越来越好地利用它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
    energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
    For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
    vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
    onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
    so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
    only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
    Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
    brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
    for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
    two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
    intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
    explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
    addictive
    .
    四)其主导难点是,政党匡助的可再生能源已经被强加到一个不等时期设计出的商海。在20世纪的绝超越一半时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的占据公司制作和平运动送的。从20世纪80年份开首,当中许多垄断被打破,被私有化和趋势,使商场力量能够控制最好投资趋势。今天唯有约陆%的电力用户从垄断集团获得他们的电力。可是,随处去碳电力供应的压力一度使得国家私行潜回市面。那是破坏性的,有四个原因。第贰是补贴制度自笔者。其余四个是风和阳光的性质固有的:它们的间歇性和它们很低的周转开销。那三个原因辅助解释了为何电力价格低和公共补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars
    since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble
    reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new,
    costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But
    subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world
    was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the
    financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating
    capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from
    wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to
develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

五)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自2010年的话约为八千亿澳元,扭曲了市面。它是由于华贵的说辞——为了对抗天气变化和勉励发展新的、昂贵的技巧,包蕴风力涡轮机和太阳电池板。不过,由于能源效能的不断增强和金融风险的影响,富裕国家的电力消耗停滞不前,补贴就在那时候出现。结果导致过量的发电能力,小幅减弱了电力服务集团从科普电力市场赢得的收益,从而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and
    sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
    turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the
    time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power
    plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables
    falter. But because they are idle for long periods, they
    find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
    on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by
15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective
way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

陆)其次,青绿电源断断续续。风和阳光的扭转莫测——
特别是在没有适当天气的国家——意味着涡轮机和太阳电池板仅在某些岁月致电。为了保持电力流动,系统依靠常规的发电站,例如煤、煤油或核能,在可再生财富减弱起到效益。不过因为她们绵绵处在空闲动静,他们发觉很难吸引私人投资者。所以,为了维持灯亮着,他们须要公共基金。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
    negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and
    the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
    lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
    that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing
    power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    七)各类人都面临第多少个要素的熏陶:可再生能源具有可忽略的依旧是零分界运维本钱——因为风和阳光是免费的。在1个赞同于以最低长期资本生生产能力源的市镇中,风能和太阳能从运营费用更加高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)那里拿走生意,下跌电价,从而下跌了全体人的纯收入。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these
    problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which
    was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost
    decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate
    disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers,
    E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America
    power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places
    with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind
    farms to keep coal plants in business.

8)可再生能源的渗透率越高,这一个标题越严重——越发是在饱和市集。在第一感受到影响的欧洲,电力服务公司受到了收入下落、资金财产搁浅和商行瓦解的“失去的10年”。2018年,德国两大电力供应商E.ON和BMWX五WE两家都分拆成两家。在美利哥可再生财富丰盛的地段,电力供应商很难找到新工厂的投资者。拥有大批量风力的地点,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有事情可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being
    re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
    public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
    renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
    using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
    politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
    blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
    cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding
    huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables
    revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被再一次调整,因为投资关键去往收益于集体支撑的领域。抵触的是,这代表扶助可再生财富的国度越来越多,他们为正规发电厂支付的也更加多,来行使“容量支付”来化解间歇性。实际上,外交家而不是市面再次决定怎么着制止停电。他们不时犯错误:德意志联邦共和国对方便、脏的褐煤的支撑引起排泄量上涨,就算其对可再生能源提供多量补贴。未有1种新的章程,可再生能源革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
    Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies
    and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some
    energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with
    intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to
    flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage
    grids that can move excess power around the network more
    efficiently.

smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve
it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It’s O.K. I smoothed things out.

十)好新闻是,新技巧能够扶持缓解那么些难题。数字化,智能电度量提示仪表和电池使集团和家庭能够解决她们的须要——例如在夜间做1些能源密集型的干活。那有助于应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的发电站,简单灵活调节生产能力,变得越来越受欢迎,高压电力网也足以更使得地在网络上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
    for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
    frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
    extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
    blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less
    electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who
    generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower
    depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the
    time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should
    be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
    energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they
    should fix it.
    1壹)更加大的天职是再度设计电力市镇,以反映对灵活供需的新供给。他们相应更频仍地调整价格,以反映天气的骚乱。在最棒稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起功效来阻拦停电。商场应该奖励愿意利用越来越少的电力的人来抵消电力网,正如他们奖励这么些发生愈来愈多电力的人。账单能够被组织变为越来越高或更低,那取决客户多么分明地盼望一向保证电力供应——有点像保单。由此可见,政策制定者应该驾驭,他们有标题,原因不是可再生财富,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们应有化解它。

原稿出处:文学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转载及用于其余商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由自身负责。自己同意简书平台在接获有关作品权人的打招呼后,删除小说。

威尼斯人开户 3

家用阳光能屋顶发电机的多寡正在急忙扩张。那就是财富禁锢理委员会员会(E奥迪Q3C)必要制订对各类人都公平禁锢的来由。

【2】wreck破坏,毁坏

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global
renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean
energy additions, according to a new study.

进而多的泰王国集团应用分布式账本技术(DLT)帮忙房主从屋顶太阳能系统中挣钱。新一代区块链消费者通过在疏散的点对点(p二p)财富市镇上购销剩余的太阳能电力资源,以致该国国有公用事业利润锐减。

威尼斯人开户 4

2016年,中国承受了多于五分之二的海内外可再生能源,根据壹项新的就学展现,那是壹项环球靛蓝财富合成物的笔录。

换句话说,随着市集规模的扩展,直接从国营公用事业集团购买的电力缩小,那意味古板电力行业的创收减弱。

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells【3】 and wind
turbines【4】
were invented, they still generate only 7% of the
world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now
growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs
are making them competitive with fossil fuels【5】. BP, an oil
firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer
far-fetched【6】 to think that the world is entering an era of
clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory
organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for
almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time,
solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

就在一年前,泰王国还丢弃了对非政党太阳能发电的暴虐界定。据《维也纳邮报》报纸发表,暹罗政坛允许家庭和供销合作社2018年五月将太阳电池板发生的剩余能量出售给EGAT,但可能当初并从未料到p二p财富社区会那样便捷地应用区块链技术呢。

【三】photovoltaic cell光伏电池

国际财富代理中央(IEA),一家在进行在香水之都的问话公司,发现可再生产资料源占新资源的57%。有史以来第三遍,太阳能合成物发展的比包含煤炭在内的其余燃料快。

英文原来的小说

【四】wind turbine风力涡轮机

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent,
reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half
of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower,
bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

New regulations drafted by Thailand officials demand that electricity
producers using blockchain be charged additional fees. Government
regulators fear an explosion in independent power generation will lead
to a reduction in revenue.

【5】fossil fuel化石燃料,矿物燃料

2018年,全世界太阳能体量增进了一半,在中华夏族民共和国担当了近乎的八分之四的能量增加的意况降低成并跨越74千兆瓦。同时中国也是海内外用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具商场的高管。

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has demanded the
fees be paid as a subsidy for potentially destabilizing effects
blockchain technology brings, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

【陆】far-fetched 牵强附会,难以置信的

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable
capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global
capacity in coal power-by 2022.

“The number of household solar rooftop power generators is increasing
rapidly. That’s why the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) needs to
develop regulation that is fair for everybody,” declared ERC member
Viraphol Jirapraditkul.

威尼斯人开户 5

IEA的施行监护人Fatih
Birol估量在2022年可再生产资料源覆盖面能够提升拾亿沃特t,恐怕今后全世界用煤量的2/四。

There is a growing number of Thai companies leveraging distributed
ledger technology (DLT) to help homeowners profit from rooftop solar
systems. A new generation of blockchain-savvy consumers is muscling the
state-owned utilities out of profits by buying and selling surplus solar
energy on decentralized peer-to-peer (p2p) energy markets.

There is a $20trn hitch【7】, though. To get from here to there
requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to
replace old smog-belching【8】 power plants and to upgrade the
pylons【9】 and wires that bring electricity to consumers.
Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because
it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

“What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics
(panels),” Birol said. “We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity
growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022.”

As the markets grow bigger, less electricity is being purchased directly
from the state-run utilities, meaning less profits for the traditional
power industry.

【7】hitch钩住(v),困难,故障,结(n);get hitched 结婚

“大家正在见证3个新太阳能电板时期的落地,“
Birol说,”大家预测在202二年,太阳能光板的能量会比任何任何可再生能源技术升高的快。“

Here, we are witnessing the decentralization of the energy sector, in
Thailand at least. Andreas Antonopolous thinks that this is one of the
“most important trends in human history.” Despite the benefits of p2p
energy markets, the fact that governments can just impose additional
fees to compensate puts a real dampener on things.

威尼斯人开户 6

In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world’s “undisputed
renewable growth leader”, driven by concerns about air pollution and
capacity targets that were outlined in the country’s 13th Five-Year
Plan(2016-20).

It was only a year ago that Thailand rolled back strict restrictions on
non-government solar power generation. Bangkok Post reported that the
Thai government allowed households and businesses to sell surplus energy
generated by solar panels back to EGAT last September, but I guess it
didn’t count on blockchain being adopted by the p2p energy community so
quickly.

【8】belch喷(大量)出,吐出,打嗝

IEA的告诉中,中夏族民共和国被认为是世界上“毫无疑问的可再生产资料源的企管者“,在对环境污染和能量目的的焦虑下,可再生产资料源的支付被标明在中原第壹三个5年安插中。

译者:高旭

威尼斯人开户 7

The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic
demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the
world’s panels.

来源:THE NEXT WEB

【9】pylon电缆塔

IEA的告知中还说神州代表了众人太阳能板的须要量,中国创建了大地百分之60左右的日光能板。

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Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to
put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China,
investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut
back【10】
. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is
to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better
use of it.

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments
in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply,
and prices.

责编:

【10】cut back (on sth)削减,减少

IEA提议,由于市镇的体积,中国策略的迈入会对伍洲的太阳能必要,供应和价格发生震慑。

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The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid
integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted
that China’s renewable energy policies are being modified in order to
address these challenges.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For
much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically
integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many
of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market
forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of
electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the
pressure to decarbonise【11】 power supply has brought the state
creeping back into【12】 markets. This is disruptive for three
reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are
inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and
their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices
are low and public subsidies are addictive.

告诉中声明了中华的可再生能源的津贴和互联网集成的标价不断增高,会对以往的升高有暧昧阻碍,并认为中夏族民共和国对可再生能源的政策相应遵照那几个阻碍做出调整。

【11】decarbonise除碳,脱碳;de-去掉,除掉,……反义

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system
with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies,
together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the
expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the
deployment of solar energy.

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中华从停放电价项目提升到有铁锈棕证书的定额分配制。IEA认为那几个新的方针加上能量市场的重新整理,新的电子通讯传输线,和分布式发电的增添会加速太阳能财富的遍布。

【1二】creep in/into sth 初始发生(或影响)

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to
growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by
China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW
by 2022.

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在内阁政策解决发展阻碍的情事下,IEA分析发今后202二年,中华夏族民共和国向导的大地可再生财富的体积会在增多三成也正是一,150千瓦。

First, the splurge【13】 of public subsidy, of about $800bn
since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—
to counter climate change and prime the pump【14】 for new,
costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar
panels【15】
. But subsidies hit【16】 just as electricity
consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy
efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut【17】
of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities
earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have
contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

【13】splurge挥霍,乱花钱

从大地的角度来看,风力和太阳能项目竞价价格的骤降,对进步新的可再生财富体积做出了贡献。

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Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at
which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76)
per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for
just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than
nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

【1四】prime the pump投资振兴

上个月,大不列颠及英格兰联合王国政坛举办了风力场的竞价会,两家合作社同意创设每时辰发生五柒.50港币(约合7陆法郎)的百万沃特t的装置。这么些价钱已经是两年前新建筑工程厂的八分之四。意味着在United Kingdom,海上风力发电第一回比原子能发电要惠及。

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Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects
to develop the”next generation” of technology in wind and wave power.

【15】solar panel太阳电池板

英国和中华夏族民共和国的钻研人口前不久公布了七个新品类去研究“下三个时期“的风能和波浪能的科学和技术。

【1陆】hit发生不良影响,风险

The UK’s Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in
funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also
receive funding from the  of China.

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英帝国的当然财富探究委员会和工程及自然科委会在以往三年会为那些项目出资肆百万美元。中国国家自然科学基金委员会员会也会掏钱。

【17】glut供过于求,供应过剩

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Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries【18】 of wind
and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants,
such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in【19】 when renewables
falter【20】. But because they are idle for long periods, they
find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
on, they require public funds.

【18】vagaries变化莫测

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【19】kick in开头生效

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【20】falter衰弱,衰退

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Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
negligible or zero marginal running costs【21】—because the wind
and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power
prices, and hence revenues for all.

【二一】marginal
costs【会计学】边际开销(指因小额变动而导致总资金的对应改变)

Gets mart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems
get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to
feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling
returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year,
Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split
in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to
find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such
as China, are curtailing【22】 wind farms to keep coal plants in
business.

【22】curtail缩减,限制

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The corollary【23】 is that the electricity system is being
re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
blackouts【24】. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
cheap, dirty lignite【25】 caused emissions to rise,
notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach
the renewables revolution will stall.

【23】corollary必然的结果(或结论)

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【贰4】blackout 断电,停电,灯火管制,新闻封锁

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【25】lignite褐煤

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem (see
page 16). Digitalisation, smart meters【26】 and batteries are
enabling companies and households to smooth out【27】 their
demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This
helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants,
which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are
high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more
efficiently.

【2陆】smart meter智能电度量提醒仪表

【27】smooth out

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【27】smooth sth (back/down/out) 使平滑,使平整

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity
to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of
it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how
strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an
insurance policy【28】. In short, policymakers should be clear
they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but
the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix
it.

【28】insurance policy保险单


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